How the FODMAP Diet Works – Step 1: The Elimination Phase

Published on: 01/12/2021

How the FODMAP Diet Works – Step 1: The Elimination Phase

The FODMAP Elimination phase is what most people think of when they hear about the Low FODMAP diet. One of the most important concepts to understand about this diet is that it is not a long-term diet. It is a learning process that allows people suffering from Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) to find which foods trigger their symptoms.

This process has 3 steps.

The FODMAP Elimination phase is only the first step. During this phase, you reduce your intake of FODMAPs with the goal to manage IBS symptoms.

Then, once you feel better, you need to move on to the second step: reintroducing FODMAPs. The “problem” foods vary considerably among individuals and there is a lot of detective work to do. By systematically re-challenging high-FODMAP foods, you can identify the specific foods you don’t tolerate.

The knowledge about which foods to avoid or limit, and which ones to enjoy liberally, allow you to create your personalized diet (step 3).

After all, the ultimate goal of this journey is to liberalize your diet to include as many foods as possible while maintaining good symptom control and improving quality of life.

Let’s talk about the first step: the FODMAP Elimination Phase.

4 Things to Know About the FODMAP Elimination Phase

Although the name elimination may invoke ideas of a very restrictive diet, this diet doesn’t exclude any food group. This is unlike more restrictive diets out there that eliminate all carbohydrates or grains, legumes, or dairy.

I like to think of this phase more as a “replacement” phase. You replace high-FODMAP vegetables, fruits, grains, dairy products, and nuts/seeds, with their low-FODMAP counterpart.

Undoubtedly, you will need to eliminate a few foods altogether, like the infamous garlic and onions. Nevertheless, those are few and you still have a variety of choices in all food groups.

And for many high-FODMAP foods, there is a low-FODMAP amount. We are not trying to achieve a “zero” FODMAP intake, just to lower the load of FODMAPs.

1. What foods need to be restricted?

The term FODMAP was coined by researchers at Monash University, where this protocol was formulated.

FODMAP stands for Fermentable Oligo- Di- Mono-saccharides And Polyols. These are certain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed or not absorbed at all in people with IBS. As a result, they may lead to symptoms of bloating, excessive flatulence, abdominal pain, either constipation or diarrhea, or a mixture of both.

These carbohydrates fall into four main groups:

  • Lactose: milk, yogurt, and ice cream
  • Excess Fructose: certain fruits, high-fructose corn syrup, honey, agave
  • Polyols/sugar alcohols: certain fruits and vegetables like blackberries and cauliflower, and some sugar-free foods (candy, gums)
  • Oligosaccharides: types of fiber in wheat, onions, garlic, beans, nuts, and soy milk

2. The goal is to achieve adequate symptom relief

The goal of this phase is to reduce high-FODMAP foods until symptoms have been reduced considerably, if not entirely eliminated. Research has shown that it takes 2-6 weeks for people to experience adequate symptom relief.  

Once symptoms have improved, one should move on to the next phase. There is no need to stay in the elimination phase longer.

3. This phase is temporary

It is important to remember that this is only a temporary phase, as this phase limits many nutritious foods. If not well planned, a low FODMAP diet can be low in certain key nutrients, mostly calcium, and dietary fiber.  

If the diet is implemented correctly, with the help of a dietitian specialized in this field, and symptoms do not improve after 6 weeks, there is no reason to continue. You should go back to your usual diet and seek the advice of a medical professional to investigate the reason for your symptoms. And there are other non-diet therapies that may help.

4. This phase shouldn’t be more restrictive than it needs to

There is a tendency to be wary of all fiber-rich foods and eliminate them altogether. It is important to include low FODMAP sources of fiber. Some examples are whole grains (brown rice, quinoa, millet), and low-FODMAP vegetables, fruits, and legumes.

While reducing dairy products from your diet (due to the elimination of high-lactose products), it is critical to include enough calcium-rich foods. There are alternative sources of calcium (such as fortified almond milk, canned salmon, and kale). Unless you are vegan or are allergic to dairy, you can include lactose-free sources of dairy, such as lactose-free milk or yogurt and some hard cheeses.

If you are ready to start, seek the help of a trained dietitian (like me) to help you get through all the phases of the low FODMAP diet accurately and efficiently, and maximize your success!

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I’m a registered dietitian with a passion for helping women with IBS find their way back to eating without fear of painful gut symptoms and without unnecessary diet restrictions.

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